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雾都孤儿论文

发布时间:2018-09-30     来源:范文九九  浏览次数:11

雾都孤儿论文

Title:

Catherine's dilemma between love and marriage in Wuthering Heights ——The Psychoanalysis of love triangle relationship with Freud‟s theory of personality

Abstract:

Wuthering Heights tells a story of superhuman love and revenge enacted on the English moors. In this thesis, an attempt is made to analyze the love triangle relationship which leads to Catherine's dilemma between love and marriage in Wuthering Heights by virtue of Freud‟s theory of personality.

Key words:

Wuthering Heights Freud‟s theory of personality love triangle relationship

In Catherine's heart she knows what is right, but chooses what is wrong. It is her wrong decision that pushes her into the inextricable

[LunWenJia.Com]dilemma between her love and marriage; it is her wrong choice that plunges the two families into chaos. In the mind, she is truly out of her way.

According to Sigmund Freud(1856—1939), the structure of the mind or

personality consists three portions: the id, the ego, and the superego.“The id, which is the reservoir of biological impulses, constitutes the entire personality of the infant at birth. Its principle of operation, to guard the person from painful tension, is termed the pleasure principle. Inevitable frustrations of the id, together with what the child learns from his encounters with external reality, generate the ego, which is essentially a mechanism to minimize frustrations of the biological drives in the long run. It operates according to the reality principle … [LunWenNet.Com]The superego comprises the conscience, a

partly conscious system of introjected moral inhibitions, and the ego-ideal, the source of the individual's standards for his own behavior. Like external reality, from which it derives, the superego often presents obstacles to the satisfaction of biological drives.”“In the mentally healthy person, these three systems form a unified and harmon

ious organization. Conversely, when the three systems of personality are at odds with one another the person is said to be maladjusted.” Here Catherine's

tragic psychological process may be well illustrated by Freudian psychoanalysis.

“I cannot express it; but surely you and everybody have a notion that there is, or should be, an existence of yours beyond you. What were the use of my creation, if I were entirely contained here,” Catherine's strange words reflect

that the intelligent Emily Bronte had been earlier pondering over a same question in her work. What on earth is“the existence of Catherine's beyond Catherine”,

Here we may believe that Heathcliff stands for Catherine's instinctual nature and the strongest desire—her “id” in the depths of her soul; Edgar, her ideal

“superego”, represents another part of her personality: the well-bred

gracefulness and the superiority of a wealthy family; and she, herself is the “ego” tortured by the friction between the two in the disharmonious situation.

In the light of Freud's theory of personality, “the superego is the representation in the personality of the traditional values and ideals of society as they are handed down from parents to children.” Catherine's choice of Edgar as her

husband is to satisfy her ideal “superego” to get wealth and high social position, which are the symbol of her class, on the basis of the education by her family and reality from her early childhood. She is a Miss of a noble family with a long history of about three hundred years. only the marriage well-matched in social and economic status could be a satisfaction for all: her family, the society and even her practical self. “It would degrade me to many Heathcliff now ... if

Heathcliff and I married, we should be beggars,” This is her actual worry for

her future. Catherine yields to the pressure from her brother, and alike, in truth, she is yielding to the moral rules of society, without the approval and identification of which, she could not live a better life or even exist i n it at all.

However, Catherine underestimates what her other more intrinsic self would have effect on her. The most remarkable claim by Catherine herself may be the best convincing evidence to distinguish the different roles of Heathcliff and Edgar—her “id” and her “superego”:

“My great miseries in this world have been Heathcliff's miseries, and I watched and felt each from the beginning: my great thought in living is himself. If all else perished, and he remained, I should still continue to be; and if all else perished, and he was annihilated, the universe would turn to a mighty stranger: I should not seem a part of it. My love for Linton is like foliage in the woods: time will change it. I'm well aware, as winter changes the trees. My love for Heathcliff resembles the eternal rocks beneath: a source of little visible delight, but necessary. Nelly, I'm Heathcliff! He's always, always in my mind: not as a pleasure and more than I am always a pleasure to me, but as my own being. So don't talk of our separation again: it is impracticable.”

It was a happy thought to make her love the kind, wealthy, weak, elegant Edgar, yet in submission to her superego to oppose against her id, she would fall into a loss of the self. Since the id is the most primitive basis of personality, and the ego is formed out of the id, Catherine's life depends wholly on Heathcliff, as the whole connotation and truth of her life in the cosmic world, for its existence and further more for the significance of her existence. Heathcliff is the most necessary part of her being. She marries Edgar, but Heathcliff still clutches her soul in his passionate embrace. Although she is a bit ashamed of her early playmate, she loves him with a passionate abandonment that sets culture, education, the world at defiance. Catherine's wrong choice for marriage violates her inner desires. The choice is a victory for self-indulgence—a sacrifice of primary to secondary things. And she pays for it.

On one hand, Catherine doesn't find the heavenly happiness she was longing for. Though as a girl “full of ambition”and “to be the greatest woman of the neighborhood” would be her pride, the enviable marriage could only flatter her vanity for a second. After her marriage, the comfortable and peaceful life in the Grange was just a monotonous and lifeless confinement of her soul. She feels chocked by the artificial and unnatural conditions in the closed Thrushcross Grange— a world in which the mind has hardened and become unalterable.“If I were in heaven, Nelly, I should be extremely miserable. ” Catherine eventually knows that the Lintons' heaven is not her ideal heaven. She and Heathcliff really possess their common heaven. Just as Catherine says,“Whatever our souls are made of, his and mine are the same; and Linton's is as different as a moonbeam from lightning, or frost from fire.”

Catherine doesn't want to live in the Lintons' heaven; on the other hand, she has lost her own paradise that she ever had with Heathcliff on the bare hard moor in their childhood. The deepest bent of her nature announces her destiny—a wanderer between the two worlds. When she is alive, she occupies a position midway between the two. She belongs in a sense to both and is constantly drawn first in Heathcliff's direction, then in Edgar's, and then in Heathcliff's again and at last she loses herself completely. Her childish illusion to use her husband's money to aid Heatllcliff to rise out of her brother's power has vanished in thin air. And her constant struggle to reconcile two irreconcilable ways of life is in vain too, which only caused more disorder in the two worlds and in herself as well.

In Freudian principles, should the ego continually fail in its task of satisfying the demands of the id, these three factors together—the painful repression of the

id's instinctual desires, the guilt conscience of revolt against the superego's

wishes, and the frustration of failure in finding outlets in the external world- would contribute to ever-increasing anxiety. The anxiety piles up and finally overwhelms the person. When this happens, the person is said to leave hallucinatory wish-fulfillment, then a nervous radical breakdown, and in the end may finish the person off. Catherine is destroyed into psychic fragmentation by the friction between the two. At the height of her Edgan-Heathcliff torment, Catherine lies delirious on the floor at the Grange. She dreams that she is back in her own old bed at Wuthering Heights “enclosed in the oak-paneled bed at home, and my heart ached with some

great grief…my misery arose from the separation that Hindley had ordered between me and Heathcliff.”Still dreaming, she t

ries to push back the panels of the oak bed, only to find herself touching the table and the carpet at the Grange:“My late anguish was swallowed in a paroxysm of despair. I cannot say why I was so wildly wretched ... and my all in all, as Heathcliff was at that time, and been converted at a stroke into Mrs. Linton...the wife of a stranger: an exile, and outcast.” She attempts to forget the lengthy days of years of life without her soul even in her temporary derangement.“Most strangely, the whole last seven years of my life grew a

blank! I did not recall that they had been at all.” Her mental and physical decay rapidly leads to the body's mortal end. She dies and seems to have none into perfect peace.

But even after her death, she is still a wandering ghost. In Chapter 3, Lockwood, the lodger in Catherine's oak-paneled bed at Wuthering Heights dreams about the little wailing ghost:

“The intense horror of nightmare came over me: I tried to draw back my arm, but the hand clung to it, and a most melancholy voice sobbed, „Let me in-Let

me in‟.„ Who are you?‟…„Catherine Linton‟, it replied, shiveringly…„I'm come home: I'd lost my way on the moor!‟…Terror made me cruel; and finding it useless to attempt shaking the creature off, I pulled its wrist on to the broken pane, and rubbed it to and fro till then blood ran down and soaked the bedclothes: still it wailed, „Let me in!‟…it is twenty years, twenty years. I've been a waif for twenty years!”

Catherine aspires to be back in her heaven even being a spirit. But leer self-deceptive decision has made her fall from her and Heathcliff's heaven full of demonic love and her never docile or submissive nature has drawn her out of her and Edgar's heaven filled with civilized emptiness in the meantime. She pushes herself into her tragedy, the endless dilemma between her love and marriage, which won't end up with her death.

Bibliography:

1.Bronte Emily,Wuthering Heights,Beijing:Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press,London:Oxford University Press 1995 2.Freud Sigmund,Interpretation of Dreams,Beijing:Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press 2001

3.Travis Trysh,Heathcliff and Cathy,the Dysfunctional Couple,The Chronicle of Higher Education,Washington,2001

4.Steinitz Rebecca,Diaries and Displacement in Wuthering Heights,Studies in the Novel,Denton,2000

雾都孤儿论文开题

Discussion on Charles Dickens’ Humanity in Oliver Twist 从《雾都孤儿》看查尔斯狄更斯的仁慈 雾都孤儿》 摘要儿童是狄更斯小说中的一类主要人物形象,他们是维多利亚时期社会底层人 民生活的代表,本文从狄更斯的小说《雾都孤儿》中分析了他的仁慈思想,首先 文章介绍了选题研究的背景,接着分析了小说的内容梗概和《雾都孤儿》的主题 思想,在此基础上文章重点研究了狄更斯的仁爱思想在小说中的反应,最后笔者 剖析了狄更斯产生仁爱思想的原因。 希望通过本文的研究能够帮助读者更好的欣 赏这部小说。 关键词: 关键词:仁慈,原因,背景 Abstract Children were a kind of main characters appearing in Charles Dickens’ novels, and they were the representatives of people living in the bottom of society in the Victorian Period This paper analyzes Dickens’ humanity in his novel Oliver Twist It firstly introduces the research background, then analyzes the main content and the theme of Oliver Twist, and on this basis, it focuses on studying the reflection of Dickens’ humanity in the novel Finally, it analyzes the causes for Dickens’ humanity I hope the study in this paper can help readers better appreciate the novel Keywords: Humanity; Cause; Background Discussion on Charles Dickens’ Humanity in Oliver Twist 从《雾都孤儿》看查尔斯狄更斯的仁慈 雾都孤儿》 Contents I Introduction 1.1. Research Background 1.2. Writing motivation II Oliver Twist 2.1. Introduction of the Novel 211 Historical Background 212 The Main Content of the Novel 22 The Theme of the Novel III Charles Dickens’ Humanity 31 Reflection from Positive Characters 311 Oliver Twist 312 Brownlow 313 Nancy 32 Reflection from Counter-Examples 321 Fagin 322 Sikes IV. Causes of Dickens’ Humanity 41 The Backgrounds in Britain in Mid 19th Century 411 Social Background 412 English Critical Realism 42 Charles Dickens 421 Introduction 422 Family 423 Experiences in Childhood V Conclusion

雾都孤儿_论文

On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

摘 要

查尔斯•狄更斯是19世纪英国伟大的批判现实主义作家。《雾都孤儿》是狄更斯最喜欢的作品之一,也由于作者对小说人物的成功刻画而闻名遐迩。在《雾都孤儿》中,许多的人物被成功的塑造,包括善良的和邪恶的。这篇论文分析了小说中的一些典型人物。首先,是儿童主人公奥利佛尔•特维斯特是狄更斯笔下善良的化身,他拥有许多难能可贵的性格特征。其次,费金和塞克斯罪恶形象的充分暴露引起了读者的反感和憎恶。最后,可怜而又性格复杂的南茜陷入良心的发现和对爱人忠诚的两难境地。最终,她冒着生命危险帮助奥利佛尔是小说中最崇高的善行之一。通过对《雾都孤儿》南茜的分析,可以得出这样的结论:狄更斯相信大多数人的内心是善良的,但有时,一些人的善念也许会因糟糕的外界环境而扭曲。

关键词:查尔斯•狄更斯、南茜、善良、本性、罪恶、凶残

On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

Abstract

Charles Dickens is the greatest representative of English critical realism in the nineteenth century. One of Dickens’ favorite novels Oliver Twist is known all over the world for the

well-portrayed characters. In Oliver Twist, dozens of characters are well portrayed, including good and evil. This thesis analyzes some of the typical characters in the novel. First, the child hero of the novel, Oliver Twist, is good incarnation described by Dickens; Oliver possess many precious characteristics. Second, Fagin and Sikes’ evil exposes completely and arouses readers antipathy

and wrath. Finally, the complex poor character, Nancy, has conflicts between her inner conscience and her devotion to Sikes. Ultimately, she risks her life to help Oliver, which commits one of the most noble acts of kindness in the story. So the conclusion draws that Dickens believes that most people were good at heart, but at times, their good impulses could be distorted by terrible environments.

Key words: Charles Dickens; Oliver Twist; goodness; nature; evil; ferocity;Nancy

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On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

Table of Contents

Abstract ................................................................................................... i 摘 要 ..................................................................................................... ii Table of Contents ................................................................................. iii Chapter 1 Introduction………… ………………………………… … 错

误~未定义书签。2

Chapter 2 Character Analysis of Oliver Twist……………………… …2

2.1 Charles Dickens……………………………………………………………………… 3

2.2Characterization…………………………………………………………4

Chapter 3 Analysis of OliveTwist……… ……… …… …… ……… 5

3.1 OliverTwist…………………………........................……… … …5

3.2Nancy..................................................... .......................... … ….. ...6

Chapter 4 Ananalysis of Nancy’s double character…………… … … . 9

4.1Nancy’sdevil………………………………………………………...…9

4.2Nancy’s good…………………………………….........…………… .9

Chapter 5 Conclusions …………… …………………………………… 10

References…………………………………………………………… . ….11

Acknowledgements………………………………………………… … 12

IIIOn the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

Chapter 1 Introduction

Oliver Twist was born in a workhouse, and when he arrived in his hard world, it was very doubtful whether he would live beyond the first three minutes. Finally Oliver drew his first breath, but his mum died.

Naturely, he became a workhouse orphan. Mrs Mann frequently beat him and kept for her own use the money that she was given for the children’s food. His spirit was so strong to be probably

the reason why he managed to reach the age of nine at all.

Then he was taken a first job to make money for Mr something who was one member of the board in workhouse. He worked for the undertaker and his meal was some meat the dog left\.So lonely and afraid as he was, treated rough by two made a wicked plan to drive out Oliver. After the plan completed, he couldn’t stay there any more an managed to go to London.

Unfortunately, the friend of his was a member of criminal gang who could easily steal the people’s wealth. Fagin was the head of gang who was glad to welcome Oliver to encourage him to be petty thief. At last, one morning came when Oliver was allowed to go out to work with the two boys. Suddenly, Oliver knew the mystery of the handkerchief, the watches and the jewels. He chose to run away because of his fear. The old man suspect he was the thief and shouted loudly: "stop thief!”. Then people in the street joined in the chase with enthusiasm and soon attracted the police. The old man forgave Oliver in the police station and took him to his home. Fagin was perturbed to send the girl Nancy to find out the information of Oliver in the police station. Fagin was hateful to regain Oliver that his secret won’t be let out. He had way to send

Oliver attend to another robbery and Oliver was caught. During that time, Nancy was guilty to cheat the old man and Oliver. She furtively ran to tell the old man of the truth and was killed after her divulging a secret.

When Monks who was Oliver’s consanguineous brothers was caught by the old man’s justice

friends, the whole thing came to light. He wanted to own legacy alone so he made a deal with Fagin to let Oliver a guilty.

At last, the criminal gang was destructive, Oliver made a happy life.

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On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

Chapter 2 Character Analysis of Oliver Twist

2.1 Charles Dickens

Charles Dickens was born on February 7, 1812, in Portsea, England. His parents were middle-class, but they suffered financially as a result of living beyond their means. At 11 years old, as his father was in debt, the family was put in a debt prison. Forced by the plight, he had become a child labor in a boot and shoe cream workshop. The miserable experience in his young mind left psychic trauma, not only his deep concern and sympathy for the unfortunate children, and prompted him to struggle to escape poverty. As a young adult, he worked as a law clerk and later as a journalist. His experience as a journalist kept him in close contact with the darker social conditions of the Industrial Revolution, and he grew disillusioned with the attempts of lawmakers to alleviate those conditions.

In 1836 he then decided to write his own stories under the name of Boz. They were called the "Pickwick Papers" which were like comics for adults. Charles would write the words and a man would draw pictures for them. They were published in cheap monthly instalments. For the first one they published only 400 copies but by the 4th they had to print40, 000! The main character Mr Pickwick served time in a debtor’s prison like Charles's Father. Within four months of publishing his first story Charles was internationally famous. After that, he created one after another works, for example, "Oliver Twist" (1838), "The Old Curiosity Shop" (1840- 1841), "Dombey and Son" (1846-1848), "David Copperfield" (1849), "Bleak House" (1852), " a Tale of Two Cities" (1854) and "Great Expectations" (1860).(Chang Yaoxin, A Survey of English

Literature, p.230)More than 20 novels and many short stories, essays, features and travel notes. Dickens successfully created many distinctive characteristics, the image of a unique character. His socially realistic novel of critical significance is not only to the British literary world a new looks, but also to the development of world literature.

With the money he earned, he was able to get married to a lady called Catherine Hogarth. Dickens had not forgotten his childhood hardships. He became famous, and had children.

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On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

Because the continued impact of past experience had an effect on his family life and his children's education. From 1837 to 1852, Dickens couple gave birth to 10 children, 9 survived. To their children, Dickens could be regarded as a strict father. He developed strict house rules and receive the help of his sister, requiring that each child must be obey orderly. For example, he always managed to find time to check whether the house was clean and tidy or not every morning. In addition, He also checks the small room furnishings, accessories are put in place. In English literature, novel is a brilliant stars peak times in nineteenth-century. In these great novelists, Dickens is a most brilliant star. Dickens had suffered a difficult childhood world, so he was sympathetic for the working class people and the most helpless children. Dickens is a prolific writer; he was depended on hard- work and talent to create a large number of classics. He is a master of humour, often use the language with humour and romance, to tell the truth of the world, so that Marx also had praise him as "an outstanding novelist.”

Oliver was born in a Workhouse, and Dickens used this novel to show how bad these places were and how they were often run by corrupt and cruel people. He is a renowned English writer all around the world. He was a critical realist of the Victorian Age. In 1837, the first installment of Oliver Twist appeared in the magazine Bentley’s Miscellany, which Dickens was then editing. It was accompanied by illustrations by George Cruikshank, which still accompany many editions of the novel today. Even at this early date, some critics accused Dickens of writing too quickly and too prolifically, since he was paid by the word for his serialized novels. Yet the passion behind Oliver Twist, animated in part by Dickens’s own childhood experiences and in part by his outrage at the living conditions of the poor that he had witnessed as a journalist, touched his contemporary readers. Greatly successful, the novel was a thinly veiled protest against the Poor Law of 1834, which dictated that all public charity must be channeled through workhouses.”

Oliver Twist is Charles Dickens second novel. The only 20-year-old writer determined to learn from the British novelist of realism painter William Hogarth(1697– 1764), who had the

courage to face life and realistically express the tragic life of the London slums. He held a high moral purpose: to protest social injustice, and to arouse public opinion, the implementation of the reform, so that the poor are in dire straits in the rescue. Because of this, Dickens has always been praised by Chinese and the former Soviet scholars as "the British literature, critical realism and

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On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

the representatives of the founder and greatest"(何文安译《雾都孤儿》).. Dickens was a lifelong

champion of the poor. He himself suffered from the harsh abuse visited upon the poor by the English legal system. In England in the 1830s, the poor truly had no voice, political or economic. In Oliver Twist, Dickens presents the everyday existence of the lowest members of English society. He goes far beyond the experiences of the workhouse, extending his depiction of poverty to London’s squalid streets, dark alehouses, and thieves’ dens. He gives voice to those who had

no voice, establishing a link between politics and literature with his social commentary. 2.2Characterization

Oliver Twist is Dickens's first novel of social criticism. Oliver was an abandoned baby struggling in the orphanage for 9 years. He was sent to a coffin shop owner as an apprentice. Unbearable hunger, poverty and humiliation, Oliver fled to London, and was forced to be a pickpocket. He was taken in by a man named Mr. Brownlow. Unfortunately, he was imposed to the den of thieves again. A kind female thief Nancy sympathized with Oliver, despite of the head of the thief's surveillance and threats, and informed Mr. Brownlow that Oliver was his grandson whom had found for a long time. Nancy was killed by the thief leader, and then police rounded up the den of thieves. Oliver was finally able to reunite with their family. The characters represent personal qualities.

Even if we might feel that Dickens’s social criticism would have been more effective if he had focused on a more complex poor character, like the Artful Dodger or Nancy, the audience for whom Dickens was writing might not have been receptive to such a portrayal. Dickens’s Victorian middle-class readers were likely to hold opinions on the poor that were only a little less extreme than those expressed by Mr. Bumble, the beadle who treats paupers with great cruelty. In fact, Oliver Twist was criticized for portraying thieves and prostitutes at all. Given the strict morals of Dickens’s audience, it may have seemed necessary for him to make Oliver a saint

figure. Because Oliver appealed to Victorian readers’ sentiments, his story may have stood a better chance of effectively challenging their prejudices.

Throughout the novel, Dickens confronts the question of whether the terrible environments he depicts have the power to “blacken the soul and change its hue for ever.” By examining the fates of most of the characters, we can assume that his answer is that they do not. Certainly,

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On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

characters like Sikes and Fagin seem to have sustained permanent damage to their moral sensibilities. Yet even Sikes has a conscience, which manifests itself in the apparition of Nancy’s eyes that haunts him after he murders her. Charley Bates maintains enough of a sense of decency to try to capture Sikes. Of course, Oliver is above any corruption, though the novel removes him from unhealthy environments relatively early in his life. Most telling of all is Nancy, who, though she considers herself “lost almost beyond redemption,” ends up making the ultimate sacrifice for a child she hardly knows. In contrast, Monks, perhaps the novel’s most inhuman villain, was brought up amid wealth and comfort. I just want to take Oliver Twist, Nancy, and Monks as examples to better illustrate the writer’s purpose.

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On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

Chapter 3 Analysis of Oliver Twist

3.1 OliverTwist

Oliver Twist himself is the most obvious example. The name “Twist,” though given by accident, alludes to the outrageous reversals of fortune that he will experience. Oliver Twist was an orphan born in the workhouse. He suffered from starvation and bully because of unbearable coffin shop proprietress, parish clerk abusing. He escaped to London alone. Unluckily, when he just arrived on the deception, he was deceived into a nest of thieves. The thief gang leaders make every means to do everything to attempt Oliver to his training, for the pickpockets driven. Following his thief partners to the street, Oliver was arrested, because he was mistakenly to have stolen a gentleman's handkerchief, which was named Mr. Brownlow (happens to be a friend of his father's during his lifetime). Later, because of bookstall owner to proved his innocence, and indicated that the thief was someone else, he was released. Because he was seriously ill and turn into coma, and looks exactly like a young woman portrait his friends left before his death. Mr. Brownlow took him in to cure; Oliver obtained meticulous care from Brownlow and his housekeeper Mr. Bumble, he felt the warmth of the world for the first time. The thief gang fear Oliver will disclose their secrets, under the direction of the Fagin, Bill Sikes and Nancy took pains to make Oliver fall into their nest, while Oliver was out to return books for Brownlow to the bookstall owner. But Fagin attempt to punish Oliver severely, Nancy came forward to protect him. Fagin made all means to attempt Oliver to become a thief, with threats, inducements and other force indoctrination. One night, Oliver was forced to burglary in a large house. While Oliver was ready to climb into the window and take opportunity to report to the owner, he was discovered by the housekeeper. So he was shot and wounded. Other thieves escape hastily; they dropped him into the roadside ditch. Injured, Oliver crawled in the rain and snow, unconsciously; he came back to the house, fainting to the door.

The kind owner Mrs. Maylie and her daughter host and shelter him. Coincidentally, she was Oliver's aunt, but neither knew that. In the grand home, Oliver really enjoys the warmth of life

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On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

and happiness. Although Oliver grew up in poor homes, did not have freedom, and be taken as slave, he was still a strong self-esteem people. Confronting other's personal attacks, He was very excited. Oliver took all the strength to shake with rage in Noah, shivering his teeth rattle, and then gathered all the strength of his punch to Noah severely, until he was knocked to the ground. I was confused, in common sense, he has been a quiet, modest boy, although it was inhuman abuse, the youth are willing to be dejected, but now the power of body beaten Noah with cohesion. What is the strength that he dared to make such a decision, a strong sense of anger to his senses; he does not allow others to insult his mother.

Although Oliver had no impression on his mother, even without knowing his mother's appearance, the respect of his mother has been always around his mind. So when Noah insulted his mother, Oliver revealed the excitement which never had. Also, for his reason, Oliver was beat cruelly and locked up. Dickens wrote this in details, not only paving the way for the following text, but also depicting profoundly the image of Oliver, as to safeguard the dignity of his mother. Many scholars believe that the most successful character is Nancy, though this novel regards Oliver as the protagonist. Nancy's role has great practical significance. Nancy is a psychological complex of young women, grew up in the thieves, and no one knows her life. In this novel, when she entered the den of thieves, she did not counter any kind people, ultimately she met Mr. Brownlow and Mr. Maylie, but it was too late. Finally, she died at the hands of robber named Bill Sikes. Her fate is tragic, just like real society after the orphans came into the gangland.

3.2Nancy

Nancy saw through the rogue group, she hated the kind of treacherous, vicious, heartless cruelty, inhuman things, meanwhile she also had some nice feelings, and reluctant to leave. She has sympathy for Oliver, treated him like her brother. In times of crisis, she would disregard her own safety to rescue him, but he had to push Oliver on the road of being thieves. She envied other cultural, educational woman, but because of her humble status, she did not expect such a happy life. There was a feeling of contradiction in her heart. As Miss Maylie and Mr. Brownlow advised her to leave the thieves group life, she refused their kindness. Her inner conflict was real, which was consistent with normal general psychology. There were many young women offenders, if misguided Nancy may have a similar a contradictory thought, that was they wanted

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On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

to leave but didn't have encourage. Although Nancy hated Bill Sikes's behavior, she could not do without him. Maybe her conduct was not reasonable; anyway, all she did was true.

As a child of the streets, Nancy has been a thief. She is immersed in the vices condemned by her society, but she also commits perhaps the noblest act in the novel when she sacrifices her own life in order to protect Oliver. Without her, Oliver may have never had the chance to grow up in a loving home. Nancy’s moral complexity is unique among the major characters in Oliver

Twist. Her ultimate choice to do good at a great personal cost is a strong argument in favor of the incorruptibility of basic goodness, no matter how many environmental obstacles it may face. In

s character much of Oliver Twist, morality and nobility are black-and-white issues, but Nancy’

suggests that the boundary between virtue and vice is not always drawn.

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On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

Chapter 4 An analysis of Nancy’s double character

There are many different views on whether people are born well or bad. Chinese Confucianism says that all human are born with good nature. While the Bible says that people all sinned to Adam. Nancy, for us, must be the weakest character. A major concern of Oliver Twist is the question of whether a bad environment can irrevocably poison someone’s character and soul.

As the novel progresses, the character who best illustrates the contradictory issues brought up by that question is Nancy. In this novel, Nancy’s character is complex and ambiguous, and she is

just like a unit of good and evil. She was not like the other characters just show good side or the bad, but at some point, shows the positive side, sometimes show the mean one. On the one hand, she has done numerous crimes under control of Fagin as a young female thief. On the other hand, she tries all her best to help Oliver out from the thief gang with the awareness of disgrace in herself and evil in her fellow gang, gradually, she wakes up and regrets, stands up and defenses against evil and oppression. At last, she overcomes evil by making the sublimating of spirit and breakthrough of nature. It’s just this double nature that well reflects the reality at that time. 4.1 Nancy’s devil

The first thing which can prove her evil is her effort in the process of recapturing Oliver Twist. At that moment,Sikes and Fagin convinced Nancy to find Oliver and take him back, although she knew that this means to bring Oliver back to the hell again, after physically threatened by Fagin and Sikes as she had the mind of listening to the fate. It is she that draws Oliver back to the Fagin’s gang, the social evil. Her action can prove that the evil inside of her characteristics.

In the later part of the novel, when Nancy decided to help Oliver get out of Monks’ trap, she

also showed the protection of their gang by saying that she would not betray her companions. There is no doubt that it will cause negative social influence. More and more innocent children like Oliver will be hurt if theft gang doesn’t get punishment.

4.2 Nancy’s good

When Fagin inflicted a smart blow on Oliver’s shoulders with the club, Nancy stood up for

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On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

protection of Oliver and cries out to Fagin and Sikes. It’s the first time she has the courage to

stand up against her evil leaders and fellow gangs.

As stated in last section, Nancy had recognized evil in herself and her fellow gang. So she tried her best to help Oliver out from the hurt and corruption of the gang. When she knew the stroy of Oliver’s birth,she showed her fearless self-sacrifice to prevent Oliver from being kidnapped a second time. She told Miss Rose the entire secret at London Bridge. It is she who reveals mystery of Oliver’s birth and changes his fate. She cares for Oliver so profoundly that it results her death. Her image is so mixed and complicated for her special characteristics. In nature, she finishes the baptism of her soul from evil to angle this time.

Nancy is the mistress of Sikes who is the second leader of theft. The author has an ulterior motive when he names Nancy and Sikes while N and S are just like two poles of the magnetic needle. This suggests that these two people themselves are a pair of irreconcilable contradictory unity. Maybe she knows that Sikes is just regard her as a maid, but she still treats him as her beloved at his mercy. No matter what factors in support of Nancy’s love, also ignore the result of

her love, readers will be moved by her love and also feel sorry for Nancy’s cost of her love.

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On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

Chapter 5 Conclusions

As a great critical realism writer, Charles Dickens’ novel is a great devotion to the world

literature. Nancy in Oliver Twist has also become the most typical image in the literature field. Dickens depicted the sharp contradiction of labor and capital of United Kingdom capitalist society. He revealed miserable life of lower class people and the hypocrisy of the bourgeoisie. In Oliver Twist, he bitterly attacks the hypocritical and cruel side of the upper class and the bourgeoisie. He gives realistic pictures of the horrible existence in workhouse. One of the important characteristics of Nancy is the real and specific description of people who lives at the bottom of society. He puts deep sympathy to the low class, especially women and little children. Meanwhile, he sings the praises of truth, goodness and beauty in human nature with idealism and Romanism sentiments. Charles Dickens led readers into a real but terrible life of underworld. His is successful in depicting a miserable image of child from lower class. The image of Nancy artistically reminds readers, people tend to be indifferent and selfish by the social reality darkness and far away from goodness. A girl from the bottom of the lower class maintains that she can’t innocently establish herself in society even if she gets rid of theft gang. Hence she is subject to fate and has to go with the flow. She regards thief head as her destiny but killed by him as a result. Nancy is not just a signal of simple character but a vivid and unique figure which leaves deepest impression to readers. The significance lies in a scathing indictment of the capitalist society. In despite of the happy ending of Oliver painted a layer of bright color for the novel, it will never cover up critical significance of Nancy’s double character. Of course, this

thesis is simply a trial exploration, since I am not qualified and therefore dare not attempt to offer a final and best answer. If only there is a little freshness in my work of exploration, which would be of my teacher’s help and advice, and we would be duly rewarded.

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On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

References

1. Chang Yaoxin, A Survey of English Literature, Nankai Uniwersity Press, 1990

2. Catherine Peters, Charles Dickens. Xi'an: Xi'an World Publishing Corporation, 1998.

3. Luo Jing guo, Collected Essays on Dickens.,M,Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Press, 1981. 4. Lu Jian guo, Charles Dickens and Oliver Twist [J]. Journal of Yuxi Normal University,2004(07)

5. Johnson E. D. H. Charles Dickens: An Introduction to His Novels. Random House Study in Language

and Literature Series [M].New York: Random House, 1969. 6. Kaplan, Fred. Dickens: A Biography [M]. New York: Morrow, 1988

7. 陈嘉.《英国文学史》(第三卷) [M]. 北京 : 商务印书馆 .1986

8. 关续兰.再读《雾都孤儿》(英文)[J]语文学刊(外语与教学),2009,(10):89-91

9. 何文安译.《雾都孤儿》查尔斯?狄更斯著.南京:译林世界文学名著,2002,9

10. 钱青.《英国19世纪文学史》.北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2005:287—291

11. 王治国 . 狄更斯评传 [M]. 上海 : 上海文艺出版社 .1991

12. http://lw.3edu.net/xsyy/lw_113928_3.html

13. http://laiba.tianya.cn/laiba/CommMsgs?cmm=6960&tid=2652685953399518737 14. http://www.benkelunwen.cn/article/2007/1118/article_34.html

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On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank my supervisor, Miss Gong Wei, who helped me during the writing of this thesis. When I did every step of graduate design, such as looking up information, determining dissertation, revising papers, the mid-and late check-ups, she gave me detailed guidance. In addition to admire Miss Gong's professional standards, the spirit of her meticulous scholarship is what I always hope to learn from, and will have positive impact on my future study and work..

Also I’d like to thank all the teachers during my college life, from whose devoted teaching and

enlightening lectures I have benefited a lot and academically prepared for the thesis. Needless to say, all the remaining errors are ascribed to my own negligence.

Finally, I would like to thank my parents for their encouragement and support in my whole student career. They are my always strong backbone ---their understanding and love is the most valuable treasure of my life!

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On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

14

Chapter 3 Effects of Global Warming

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On the themes of Good And Evil in Oliver Twist

16

雾都孤儿小论文

雾都孤儿小论文

众所周知,狄更斯是十九世纪英国著名的小说家,他在英国文学史上享有非凡的胜誉。他是他所处的那个时代的犀利的社会批评家。«雾都孤儿»是他的代表作之一。

«雾都孤儿»中南希这个人物有无比丰富复杂的内心世界,又是一个矛盾的集合体,她兼有了善良与邪恶,美德与丑陋,正是这种矛盾的性格给她带来了不幸。在这部小说中,她是一位悲惨的可怜的人物,是伤感的典型代表。她是一个失去父母双亲的孩子,被费金收留后并从此迫使成为了小偷。后来,在她长大成人之后,她又被转手给了赛克斯这样一个野蛮粗俗的强盗做了情妇。她的整个一生,都被牢牢地攥在这些男人手中。

尽管在这部小说中南希不是主要人物,但是她却扮演了一个关键的角色。她和我们的英雄主人公—奥利佛的命运息息相关。奥利佛的最终获救都要归功于她的行动:送信给露丝并且与露丝和布朗罗会面。另一方面,她又是邪恶团伙当中的一员,并忠于她的组织。在贯穿整部小说的过程当中,她都没有一条清楚的界线。她那身份和性格的复杂性使得她形成了独一无二的个性特。

尽管南希下手参与了绑架奥利佛,但是她对奥利佛示以同情并尽其所能来保护他:

对于奥利佛,她是绑架奥利佛犯罪集团的主要同谋。在街上截获并劫持了奥利佛,然后把他带回到了洞穴里。从某种程度上来说,正是南希又把奥利佛送到了抢劫犯的手中。费金正是通过南希的帮助才重新得到了奥利佛,从此奥利佛的悲惨生活从新开始了。然而,在把奥利佛带回到费金的住处之后,她又竭尽所能地来保护他。因为奥利佛想逃跑,所以费金就用一根棍棒来鞭打他,这时南希就象一个姐姐那样,她毫不顾及她自己的安危来保护着奥利佛,因为看到他,她就仿佛看到了他那个年纪的自己。南希有一个营救奥利佛的好的愿望想法,但是她又始终报有对邪恶团伙的忠诚,她所做的一切都是为了保证奥利佛的安全——当他被坏蛋虐待的时候做他的保护神,窃听孟可司和费金之间的谈话,拜访露丝,与露丝和布朗罗会面。在她的头脑中,尽管他们是一伙贼,但是他们信任她并将她当作他们自己信任的成员。她不忍心看着他们被抓住。

对于赛克斯,尽管她知道赛克斯是一个冷血的坏脾气的恶棍,但是她仍然缺乏离开他的勇气,并自始至终地回到他的身边。赛克斯不止一次地虐待南希,把她看作是一个奴仆。只要他心情不好或者是对这个女孩子稍有不满的话,他就会随心所欲地辱骂和虐待她。甚至当他生病时南希在照顾他的时候,他仍然不忘诅咒这个女孩。尽管她从赛克斯那里得到的是不堪忍受的虐待,但是她仍然顽固地追随着他。为了这个暴徒,她拒绝了露丝指引给她走上

一个崭新生活的建议。她告诉露丝在那个时候她不能离开他,她顽固地坚守她对恶棍团伙的忠心,尤其是对那个虐待她的男人。在她的心目中,她把她所回去的地方当作“一个家”, 我们实在是怜其不幸而同时又为她的糊涂的头脑感到非常气愤。她对于自己的命运却是悲观失望和不自信的,她放弃了她自己。没有一滴对新生活的希望之火花能够点燃她那黑暗的心灵。面对露丝和布朗罗的几次的劝说,她一次又一次地选择了逃避。因为她总是认为她的改过自新已为时已晚。他们两人关系很微妙,南茜离不开赛克斯,宁愿被他杀害也不肯抛弃他;而赛克斯也离不开南茜,一旦失去她,他就丧魂失魄,终于在房顶跌落,脖子被自己的一条绳子的活扣套住而气绝身死。

对于造成南希悲惨的命运的原因有两个方面,外因和内因。

外因,南茜是一个无父无母的孤儿,那时她为了生活没有别的选择只有做贼。这就是许许多多像她一样无家可归的孩子不可避免的遭遇。这并不是他们的错,那是社会环境逼得他们成为了社会的糟粕,那是由于政府的腐败和作者想揭露批判的统治阶级的错误。

内因,她的劣等级的意识使得她缺乏离开那个坏蛋的勇气在南茜的眼里,露丝是一个纯洁的、优雅的女士。她有着高贵的出身和地位,从她的童年时代起就有那么多的亲人关心她,她无须担心她的生计,她从来都不会遭受饥饿和寒冷的侵袭。这尤其反映在当她和露丝.梅莱这个漂亮、苗条的年轻女孩在一齐的时候。在和她有着相仿年纪的如此一个可爱的女孩面前,她感到无比的卑贱。在这个女孩的头脑中,有一种根深蒂固的观念:毕竟,黑色就是黑色,邪恶就是邪恶,把黑色变成白色和把邪恶成为美德都是不可能的。她对她自己没有任何的自信心。如果说是社会的错使得她在年幼时为了活命而做贼的话;那么也可以说是她自己的错,因为当一个走上新生活的良机摆在她面前时,她却拒绝了。她们愿意继续和他们呆在一起,追随着他们,把自己的一生和他们系在一起,把自己的命运交到她们所爱的男人手中,对他们过度的依赖。

尽管是一个悲哀的结局,但是南茜在读者的眼中却是一个值得同情的可怜的形象,并且在他们的脑海中留下了深刻的印象。

雾都孤儿论文

《雾都孤儿》中南希的双重性格研究

初等教育学院 小学教育(英语)专业 2010级 彭霞

指导教师 龙娟

摘 要:《雾都孤儿》中的南希是整个故事情节发展中的关键人物,她集善良与罪恶于一身的双重性格也给读者留下了深刻的印象。本文主要通过深入分析南希的凄惨身世,所处的环境等方面,来解读南希的双重性格特点以及这种性格在她的生活和感情等多方面的体现和她这种双重性格形成的原因。

关键词:雾都孤儿;南希;双重性格

Abstract:The key character Nancy in Oliver Twist is between good and evil, and her complex personality impressed many readers. This paper analyzes Nancy’s sad life, living environment and so on to explore her character, its reflection of her life and love life and its cause.

Key words:Oliver Twist; Nancy; dual character

狄更斯是十九世纪英国文坛上一位杰出的批判现实主义的小说家。他本人出生在十九世纪英国的一个贫穷家庭,亲身经历了当时英国社会的生活压迫。在他的大部分作品当中,都充满了对他当时所处的那个英国社会制度时代的不公的强烈批判。揭露腐败和贫穷,讽刺伪善与官僚主义在他的作品中屡见不鲜。《雾都孤儿》是他的早期作品,同时也是他最杰出的作品之一,反映了19世纪初叶英国残酷的社会现实,揭示了无情的吃人剥削的资本主义制度。故事通过围绕出身孤儿的小主人公奥利弗几度身陷以费金为首的扒手魔窟,历经磨难,终于逃离虎口的曲折经历,塑造了几个被迫做贼的青少年的人物形象。南希就是其中一个。小说中的南希并非主要人物,但她却是整个故事情节发展中的关键人物。她的双重性格和悲惨命运更是整个故事的一大看点。

南希是一个矛盾的人物。一方面,她很善良,心存正义。她明白自己所在的扒

手团伙的罪恶,痛恨做扒手,也痛恨团伙里的恶人。她同情奥利弗与自己有相同的遭遇,为了拯救奥利弗,她不惜赌上自己的性命。另一方面,作为一个扒手,在费金的控制下,她犯下了无数的罪行,并忠于扒手团伙组织。南希很小就父母双亡,后由费金收养,从此她别无选择走上了做扒手的道路。尽管成长在扒手团伙中,她善良的人性却一直未曾泯灭,让人不禁心生怜悯。徘徊在善与恶的边缘她,总让读者的心随其跌宕起伏,也让读者更加愿意去研究她那让人难以捉摸的双重性格。双重性格,通常叫做双重人格。从医学上讲,双重人格就是正常人在相同时刻存在两种(或更多)的思维方式,其中,各种思维的运转和决策不受其他思维方式的干扰和影响,完全独立运行。从心理学上讲,双重人格是指一个人具有两个或两个以上的、相对独特的并且相互分开的亚人格。毫无疑问,在《雾都孤儿》这部小说中,南希的种种表现和行为表明,她便是这样拥有双重性格的人。在整部作品当中,南希没有一条非常清楚的界限, 善良与邪恶相溶交织,互作斗争。

一、南希的性格特点表现分析

(一)忠于爱情

爱情在南希生命中占有非常重要的地位,对待爱情她忠贞无悔,将爱情看得比自己的未来、名誉、甚至比生命都还要重要。然而痴情的南希爱上却是无情的赛克斯。当她对赛克斯说,倘若有一天他被判了绞刑,她要在那个地方附近一圈一圈的打转,哪怕地上都是雪,哪怕肩上没有披巾,她也要走到走不动倒下为止。然而赛克斯却是冷漠相对,毫不在意。他们的爱情注定是一场不公平的悲剧的爱情。可尽管赛克斯残暴无情,对南希毫无半分怜爱,甚至经常打骂她。南希却依然守候在赛克斯的身旁,忍受他无情的虐待与打骂,只为坚守她心中的那份爱情。后来,为了拯救奥利弗的生命,她选择背叛她的爱人,尽管她料想到了赛克斯会因此要了她的性命,她却依旧选择回到塞克斯的身边。也许她的内心还抱有一丝希望,希望赛克斯能够顾念往日的情分,不会忍心杀害自己。然而无情的赛克斯

不能忍受背叛。最终南希死在了她深爱多年的赛克斯手下。

南希的爱情太过卑微,也太过不幸。可这份悲凉的爱情却是南希在那个黑暗凄惨生活中的一丝残存的温暖情感与希望,是她精神生活的唯一养料。南希的一生经历了太多的不幸与悲哀,她渴望温暖,期盼幸福。可她生活在那个冷酷黑暗环境中,她的身边没有人能给她温暖与幸福。也许是她太需要一份能够点亮她生活的情感了,于是她为自己编织了一份爱情,即使这份爱情的另一个主人公是赛克斯,她也为之坚守。作为赛克斯的情人,南希与他生活了多年,她深知赛克斯的罪恶,清楚他干过多少伤天害理的事情,也明白赛克斯并不爱自己,只是把她当作赚钱和发泄情欲的工具而已。可她为了坚守心中的爱情,无法离开这个不爱他的男人,将自己的一片痴情都倾注在他的身上,甚至将生命都交付给他。尽管她有机会逃离赛克斯,远离肮脏悲惨的贼窝,去过另一种她渴望却从未有过的生活,但为了爱情,她固执的拒绝了露丝的帮助,毅然回到赛克斯的身旁。为了忠于爱情,她最终付出了生命的代价。南希的决定也许是糊涂的,但毫无疑问,她对爱情的忠贞是值得我们敬佩的。

(二) 行事罪恶

南希从小误入了贼窝,以偷盗和与匪徒们同流合污来谋生,在扒手团队中生活了十多年,做过的坏事不计其数。多年罪孽深重的扒窃生活,已经把她人性的许多磨灭殆尽,她的价值判断力也被扭曲模糊。即使她厌恶罪恶,明白偷窃的行为是罪恶的,但为了生存,迫于压力,她依然会去做。作为费金扒窃团伙中的一员,十几年来她都以偷窃为生,犯下了许多罪行。不仅如此,她还将奥利弗劫持回费金家。奥利弗因为偶然的一次机会离开了费金所在的扒窃团伙,并被好心的布朗劳先生收留。在布朗劳先生家中,奥利弗得到了管家贝德温的精心照顾和布朗劳先生的关爱。这是他出生以来第一次亲身切实感受到来自他人的温暖,如同梦境一般美好,奥利弗十分珍惜。然而此时,赛克斯和费金担心奥利弗会出卖他们,决定将奥利弗带回来。他们将这个任务交给了南希。尽管南希刚开始并不情愿,她也明白自己这样做就是把奥利弗重新带回那个如同地狱般的贼窝,但在赛克斯和费金的软硬兼施下,她还是将奥利弗带了回去。是她亲手打破了奥利弗在

布朗劳先生家的幸福生活,将他带回了费金家。虽然南希的内心同情奥利弗,也后悔自己将奥利弗带回来的行为。但这并不能弥补她所犯下的罪行,也表明了南希行事的罪恶性。

(三) 善对他人

当露丝要求南希做起诉费金的指证人时,她坚定地拒绝了。在她的头脑中,尽管费金残酷无情,尽管他们是一伙贼,但是他们信任她并把她当作他们自己信任的成员,她不忍心伤害他们。她担心他们的安全,不忍亲手将他们送入监狱,被执以绞刑。面对曾经带给她无数伤害的人,她都已仁慈和善良回报。对待奥利弗,南希更是善良。虽然南希在贼团中生活了十多年,但她并未泯灭人性。当奥利弗出现在她面前时,唤起了她内心深处的那份善良。看到奥利弗,南希如同看到了小时候的自己。而她的现在就是奥利弗的将来,她所经历的、承受的一切苦难都将在奥利弗的身上一一重现。回想自己的经历,她不忍奥利弗重蹈自己的覆辙。她同情奥利弗,如同对待亲弟弟一般对待他。当她看到扒手团伙百般折磨奥利弗的时候,她勇敢的冲上前去,把棍子从赛克斯手中夺下来,愤怒的将其扔入火中,使得火花飞溅,烧红的煤渣撒了一地。并大声扬言:这里的人谁再敢欺负折磨奥利弗,我就和谁拼命。南希此刻非常后悔将奥利弗带回贼窝中来。后来,当南希听说受伤后的奥利弗被塞克斯抛弃在漆黑的沟里时,她内心希望奥利弗死在那里。她并非残忍无情,只是不愿奥利弗继续承受自己经历过的苦难,宁可死也不要再受到扒手窝里的折磨。如果今后再也见不到奥利弗,她将非常高兴,因为奥利弗再也不用忍受痛苦与折磨。最后当奥利弗身处险境时,也是南希挺身而出,冒着生命危险帮助他离开扒窃团伙。也正是因为南希,奥利弗找到了自己的亲人,继承了属于自己的财产,他的命运才得以改变。

(四)处事机智

南希虽然年纪轻轻,但她是一个聪明女贼。由于她很小就被迫出去求生存,经历了太多的事情,她已然是一个老练、机灵和训练有素女贼。当她被派去寻找奥利弗的去向时,可谓不辱使命。没有借助金钱,只是乔装成一个失去弟弟的良家妇女,赶到教养院,轻而易举就从一位警察口中得知奥利弗的去向。当费金和赛

克斯得知这一消息,准备将奥利弗抓回来时,南希再次显露了她的机灵。在奥利弗前往书店帮布朗罗先生还书和欠款的途中,南希将他截住并一把抱住他,然后只用几句话就赢得了围观群众的同情,轻轻松松的在众目睽睽之下强行带走了奥利弗,没引起半分怀疑。后来当南希不忍看到奥利弗再受折磨,并决定将他从那个地狱般的地方拯救出来时,又充分展现了她的机智。面对老谋深算的费金和残暴无情的赛克斯,南希冷静应对,机智处理。当蒙克斯(奥利弗同父异母的兄长)与费金密谋怎样对付奥利弗时,南希假装喝醉了酒,偷听他们的秘密谈话。并寻找机会,悄悄从护壁板上过去,将秘密消息送出去。这样的胆识与智慧令人钦佩。在她巧妙地把赛克斯灌醉之后,她马上找到了露丝小姐,并将秘密告诉了她,希望借由她的力量去保护和解救身处困境的奥利弗。南希从小在黑暗的社会中挣扎求生,作为一名扒手,每天要接触各种各样的人,她只有学会如何应对身边各样的人和事,巧妙地与之周旋,才能求得生存。

二、南希的双重性格形成原因分析

(一)凄惨身世

相比奥利弗,南希的身世更为悲惨。在南希很小的时候,父母就离开了她的身边。失去父母的她,在饥寒交迫中痛苦挣扎,艰难求生。在南希4、5岁时候,她遇见了费金。然而费金是一个专门以训练儿童为小偷的贼首。迫于生存,在费金的训练下,小小年纪的她成为了一名扒手。没有选择自己命运的权力,每天她都被费金赶到街上去偷东西,敢有不从,就要受皮肉之苦。从此,她走上了犯罪的道路。长大后,她又被一个野蛮粗俗的强盗赛克斯买下,做他的情妇。赛克斯残暴无情,南希在他手里受尽屈辱与折磨。南希的一生中,从未得到关心与疼爱,她的命运也从未掌握在自己手里。这样的生活经历,让南希学会了屈从与逆来顺受。并且她忠诚于费金的犯罪团伙,也忠诚于她的情人赛克斯。她南希凄惨的身世确定了她性格的走向。

(二)生活环境

环境能够塑造人的性格,南希的性格特点与她生活的环境是息息相关的。南希走上犯罪的道路,不是她与生俱来的罪恶品性,而是她生活的环境影响的结果。南希生活在资本主义社会的最底层,终日与扒手盗贼为伍,以寒冷、潮湿、肮脏的街道为家。社会环境的无情、肮脏和黑暗让她忍受饥饿和寒冷。残酷的资本主义制度下,只有剥削与压榨,没有人关心弱者的生存。这样的社会环境让南希无从选择职业与生存方式,也形成了她性格的劣根性。而她的身边没有父母与亲人。在她最需要关爱与教育的时刻,没有人能给她正确的人生指导。费金可算是南希的“启蒙者”。作为一个贪婪、自私和邪恶的训练小孩做扒手的魔鬼,他教会了南希如何以一名扒手生存,如何抛弃良知,藐视法律。毫无疑问,他成功地将南希培养成了一名罪犯。在南希身边还有以扒窃为生存技能的扒手们和以偷盗为生的她的情人赛克斯。他们都是丑陋邪恶的人。扒手们不以偷扒窃为耻,反而视之为一种乐趣,一种正大光明的求生手段。甚至谁偷的东西越值钱,他就越值得尊敬。赛克斯更是一个穷凶极恶的盗贼。这样的一群人,他们的价值观念中没有道德,没有正义,更没有善良。有的只是如何非法的获取更多的财富。并且在他们眼中,这样的手段是正确的,甚至是很合理的。在这样一个充满邪恶与犯罪的环境中,尽管南希并没有完全泯灭自己的良知,但她的价值判断力已经被彻底模糊。这样环境形成了南希罪恶的性格。

(三)本质善良

人之初,性本善。南希性格中有罪恶的一面,但这不是她与生俱来的。我们相信人的本质是善良的,南希也是。只是长年生活在扒手团伙中,经历了悲惨黑暗的生活,让她善良的品质被一点点的被磨灭。尽管她的生活充满罪恶,她却从未抛弃心中的善良。当她看到纯真善良的奥利弗落入费金手里时,那似曾相识的场景彻底唤起了她内心尚未完全泯灭的良知。她十分清楚如果奥利弗留在贼窝,那他注定会和自己一样迫于生存沦为扒手,走上一条犯罪的不归路。她厌恶这一切,虽然不敢与扒手团伙作斗争,但她无法眼睁睁的看到自己的悲剧重新上演,她深知自己命运的悲苦,不愿有人和她遭受同样的痛苦。为了遵从自己内心的善良,她不顾一切,与扒手团伙斗智斗勇,最终将奥利弗成功解救。而她却为此献

出了自己宝贵的生命。

(四)矛盾心理

南希有着无比丰富且充满矛盾的内心世界。虽然从小生活在罪恶的扒手团伙中,但她知道是非善恶,明白扒窃行为是不正确的,她憎恨费金一伙人,也憎恨自己的扒手身份。可为了自己的生存,她依旧从事这份工作,做了很多罪恶的事。尽管她渴望一分光明的工作,过正常的生活,但当露丝给她机会时,她却拒绝了,甘愿回到扒手团伙中继续做一个扒手。她同情奥利弗的遭遇,内心很想帮助他。但也正是她去打听奥利弗的下落并将他带回费金身边。在南希的内心深处,她已经意识到了自己的行为是罪恶的,但她无法摆脱自己身处的环境,只能通过继续从事恶行来获得生存的条件。她知道自己只是费金的一个赚钱的工具,也憎恨费金的所作所为,但她却不愿指证费金。尽管她看透了扒手团伙中一切丑陋行径,也厌恶他们的残暴无情,灭绝人性,但她又舍不得离开扒手团伙。她的情人赛克斯为人凶狠残暴,冷酷无情,她也明白赛克斯心里并不在乎她,可她却离不开他。虽然南希心存善良,但她无法摆脱自己扒手的身份,无法远离罪恶。南希这种矛盾交织的心理形成了她的双重性格。

三、结语

通过研究南希的双重性格,可以看出,狄更斯在描写南希双重性格的同时,也表达了他对英国无情吃人的资本主义制度的强烈的批判和不满。同时,通过对南希双重性格的研究,有助于读者更好的理解小说刻画出来的人物特性,有助于读者更好的理解人物徘徊在善与恶之间矛盾的内心,并从而认识她所处的那个社会的真实面目。其实,南希的双重性格反映了现实生活中人性善与恶的碰撞。从古至今,人性都不是单一的,人们的内心或多或少总是矛盾交织的。而南希鲜明的双重性格,正是现实生活中人性的一个真实写照。

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