2020中考英语定语从句高频考点知识复习汇总

|庄宇

  中考是人生道路上第一个转折点,对考生的未来发展有重要的影响作用,可以决定学生高中阶段的学习,从而影响高考。想要考上好高中,就要在中考中取得好成绩,这就需要认真复习。这里给大家分享一些关于2020中考的复习知识点归纳,供大家参考。

  2020中考英语定语从句知识点汇总

  1.定语从句的功用和结构

  在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。被定从句修饰的词叫做先行词。定语从句必须放在先行词之后。引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词和关系副词。例如:

  This is the present that he gave me for my birthday

  2.关系代词和关系副词的功用

  关系代词和关系副词用来引导定于从句,在先行词和定语从句之间起纽带作用,使二者联系起来。关系代词和关系副词又在定语从句中充当一个成分。关系待客做主语,宾语,定语,关系副词可作状语。

  1. 作主语:关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数须和先行词一致。例如:

  I don’t like people who talk much but do little.

  The cars which are produced in Hubei Province sell very well.

  2. 作宾语:She is the person that I met at the school gate yesterday.

  The book that my grandmother gave me is called “The Great Escape”.

  3. 作定语

  关系代词whose在定语从句中作定语用。例如:

  What’s the name of the young man whose sister is a doctor?

  The girl whose father is a teacher studies very hard.

  4. 作状语

  I’ll never forget the day when I first came to Beijing.

  三. 各个关系代词和关系副词的具体用法

  1. who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。例如:

  The person who broke the window must pay for it.

  The boy who is wearing the black jacket is very clever.

  2. whom指人,在定语从句中作宾语。例如:

  Do you know the young man (whom) we met at the gate?

  Mr Lee (whom) you want to see has come.

  3. whose 指人,在定语从句中作定语。例如:

  The girl whose mother is ill is staying at home today.

  I know the boy whose father is a professor.

  4. which指物,在定语从中作主语或宾语。例如:

  A dictionary is a book which gives the meaning of words.

  Here is the book (which) the teacher mentioned yesterday.

  5. that多指物,有时也指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。例如:

  I’ve read the newspaper that(which) carries the important news.

  Who is the person that is reading the newspaper over there?

  6. when 指时间,在定语从句中作状语。例如:

  I’ll never forget the time when we worked on the farm.

  He arrived in Beijing on the day when I left.

  7. where 指地点,在定语从句中作状语。例如:

  This is the house where we lived last year.

  The factory where his father works is in the east of the city.

  四. 关系代词 whom, which 在定语从句中作介词宾语时,可以和介词一起放于先行词与定语从句之间,有时为了关系紧凑也可以将 whom 与 which 与先行词紧挨着书写,而将介词置于定语从句的后面,如:

  That was the room in which we had lived for ten years. = That was the room

  which we had lived in for ten years.

  五. 具体使用时还要注意下列问题:

  1. 只能使用that,不用which 的情况:

  (1) 先行词是all, few, little, nothing, everything, anything 等不定代词时。例如:

  All that he said is true.

  (2) 先行词被only, no, any, all,等词修饰时。例如:

  He is the only foreigner that has been to that place.

  (3) 先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰的词。例如:

  He was the second (person) that told me the secret.

  (4) 先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰的词。

  This is the best book (that) I have read this year.

  (5) 先行词既包括人又包括物时。例如:

  He talked about the people and the things he remembered.

  2. 只能用which,不用that 的情况:

  (1) 在非限制性定语从中。例如:

  The meeting was put off, which was exactly what we wanted.

  (2) 定语从句由介词+关系代词引导,先行词是物时。例如:

  The thing about which he is talking is of great importance.

  考查的主要形式是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。阅读理解和书面表达肯定也要用到定语从句。

  2020中考英语定语从句考查重点

  一. 定语从句的概念

  在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,引导定语从句的词叫关系词,定语从句一般放在先行词的后面。

  二. 引导定语从句的关系词

  引导定语从句的关系词有关系代词和关系副词,常见的关系代词包括that, which, who(宾格whom,所有格whose)等,关系副词包括where, when, why等。关系代词和关系副词放在先行词及定语从句之间起连接作用,同时又作定语从句的重要成分。

  三. 定语从句的分类

  根据定语从句与先行词的关系,定语从句可分为限制性定语从句及非限制性定语从句。限制性定语从句紧跟先行词,主句与从句不用逗号分开,从句不可省去。非限制性定语从句与主句之间有逗号分开,起补充说明作用,如省去,意思仍完整。

  四. 关系代词的用法

  1. that 既可以用于指人,也可以用于指物。在从句中作主语、宾语或表语。作主语时不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如:

  Mary likes music that is quiet and gentle.

  玛丽喜欢轻柔的音乐。(that作主语)

  The coat (that) I put on the desk is blue.

  我放在桌子上的那件外套是蓝色的。(that作宾语)

  2.which用于指物,在句中作主语、宾语或表语。作主语不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如:

  The building which stands near the train station is a supermarket.

  位于火车站附近的那座大楼是一家超市。(作主语)

  The film (which) we saw last night was wonderful.

  我们昨天晚上看的那部电影很好看。(作宾语)

  3.who, whom用于指人,who 用作主语,whom用作宾语。在口语中,有时可用who代替whom。who和whom作宾语时也可省略。例如:

  The girl who often helps me with my English is from England.

  经常在英语方面帮助我的那个女孩是英国人。(作主语)

  Who is the teacher (whom) Li Ming is talking to?

  正在与李明谈话的老师是谁?(作宾语)

  注意:

  (1)当定语从句中含有介词,介词放在句末时,who,whom,that, which可省略,但介词在关系代词前时,只能用“介词+which/whom”结构。例如:

  This is the house in which we lived last year.

  这是我们去年居住的房子。

  Please tell me from whom you borrowed the English novel.请告诉我你从谁那借的这本英文小说。

  (2)含有介词的固定动词词组中,介词不可前置,只能放在原来的位置上。例如:

  This is the person whom you are looking for.

  这就是你要找的那个人。

  (3)that 作介词的宾语时,介词不能放它的前面,只能放在从句中动词的后面。例如:

  The city that she lives in is very far away.

  她居住的城市非常远。

  (4)关系词只能用that的情况:

  a. 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,或本身是序数词、基数词、形容词最高级时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:

  He was the first person that passed the exam.

  他是第一个通过考试的人。

  b. 被修饰的先行词为all, any, much, many, everything, anything, none, the one等不定代词指物时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:

  Is there anything that you want to buy in the shop?

  你在商店里有什么东西要买吗?

  c. 先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last, little, few 等词修饰时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:

  This is the same bike that I lost.

  这就是我丢的那辆自行车。

  d. 先行词里同时含有人或物时,只能用that, 而不用which.例如:

  I can remember well the persons and some pictures that I saw in the room.

  我能清楚记得我在那个房间所见到的人和一些照片。

  e. 以who或which引导的特殊疑问句,为避免重复,只能用that.例如:

  Who is the girl that is crying?

  正在哭泣的那个女孩是谁?

  f. 主句是there be 结构,修饰主语的定语从句用that,而不用which,例如:

  There is a book on the desk that belongs to Tom.

  桌子上那本书是汤姆的。

  (5)关系词只能用which,而不用that 的情况:

  a. 先行词为that, those时,用which, 而不用that.例如:

  What’s that which is under the desk?

  在桌子底下的那些东西是什么?

  b. 关系代词前有介词时,which,而不用that.例如:

  This is the room in which he lives.

  这是他居住的房间。

  c. 引导非限制性定语从句,先行词指事物时,用which, 而不用that,例如:

  Tom came back, which made us happy.

  汤姆回来了,这使我们很高兴。

  五. 关系副词的用法

  1. when指时间,其先行词表示时间,when在定语从句中作时间状语。例如:

  This was the time when he arrived.

  这是他到达的时间。

  2. where指地点,其先行词表示地点,where在定语从句中作地点状语。例如:

  This is place where he works.

  这是他工作的地点。

  3. why 指原因,其先行词是原因,why在定语从句中做原因状语。例如:

  Nobody knows the reason why he is often late for school.

  没人知道他为什么上学总迟到。

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